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BITSAT 2014 Syllabus -PHYSICS
Units & Measurement
Properties of vector
position, velocity and acceleration vectors
Motion with constant acceleration
Uniform circular motion
3.1 Newton’s laws (free body diagram, resolution of forces)
3.2 Motion on an inclined plane
3.3 Motion of blocks with pulley systems
3.4 Circular motion – centripetal force
3.5 Inertial and non-inertial frames
4.1 Definition of impulse and momentum
4.2 Conservation of momentum
4.4 Momentum of a system of particles
4.5 Center of mass
5.1 Work done by a force
5.2 Kinetic energy and work-energy theorem
5.4 Conservative forces and potential energy
5.5 Conservation of mechanical energy
6.1 Description of rotation (angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration)
6.2 Rotational motion with constant angular acceleration
6.3 Moment of inertia, Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, rotational kinetic energy
6.4 Torque and angular momentum
6.5 Conservation of angular momentum
Escape velocity ws, satellite motiedes’ principle, motion and compound pendulum resonance pipes, ratureConduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law, thermodynamicscarnot engine – Efficiency and Coefficient of performance continuous charge distributions) ctrostatic potential energy, parallel plate capacitor, capacitors in series and parallel), cells in series and parallel, Kirchoff’s laws, potentiometer and Wheatstone , origin and temperature dependence of resistivity.
1.1 Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures.
1.2 Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
1.3 Gaseous state: Gas Laws, ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
1.4 Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
1.5 Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals. Imperfections- Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids – qualitative description. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semiconductors.
2.1 Introduction: Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Rutherford’s picture of atom; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model.
7.1 Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
7.2 Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, size of particles; Temperature dependence of rate constant; Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.
7.3 Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only.
8.1 Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, ionic, covalent, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: preparation, reaction, structure & use, Hydrogen as a fuel.
8.2 s-block elements: Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties (ionization energy, atomic & ionic radii).
8.3 Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens water and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
8.4 Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with non-metals; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance; Properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement.
9.1 General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; electronic configuration, oxidation states; anomalous properties of first element of each group.
9.2 Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;
9.3 Group 14 elements: Carbon: carbon catenation, physical & chemical properties, uses, allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites.
9.4 Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Reactivity and uses of nitrogen and its compounds; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers – NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids (elementary idea only) and halides of phosphorus, phosphine.
9.5 Group 16 elements: Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Production of sulphur and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids (structures only), hydrides and halides of sulphur.
9.6 Group 17 and group 18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of chlorine (structures only); preparation, properties & uses of chlorine & HCl; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids.
9.7 d-Block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; ionization enthalpy; Ionic radii; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography.
9.8 f-Block elements: Lanthanoids and actinoids; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction; Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids.
9.9 Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of
metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds.
10.1 Classification: Based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature. Methods of purification: qualitative and quantitative.
10.2 Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanions, nucleophiles and electrophiles; types of organic reactions.
10.3 Alkanes and cycloalkanes: Structural isomerism, general properties and chemical reactions.
10.4 Alkenes and alkynes: General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic character of alkynes and (1,2 and 1,4) addition to dienes.
10.5 Aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources; properties; isomerism; resonance delocalization; aromaticity; polynuclear hydrocarbons; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction, directive influence and effect of substituents on reactivity; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
10.6 Haloalkanes and haloarenes: Physical properties, chemical reactions and mechanism of substitution reaction. Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, freon and DDT.
10.7 Petroleum: Composition and refining, uses of petrochemicals.
11.1 Introduction: Chiral molecules; optical activity; polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; enantiomerism; racemates; diastereomerism and meso structures.
11.2 Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections.
11.3 Geometrical isomerism in alkenes
12.1 General: Electronic structure, important methods of preparation, identification, important reactions, physical properties and uses of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides.
12.2 Specific: Effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, mechanism of nucleophilic addition and dehydration, basic character of amines methods of preparation, and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry.
13.1 The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle.
13.2 Carbohydrates: Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing sugars – sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides: elementary idea of structures of starch, cellulose and glycogen.
13.3 Proteins: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondary
, tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes.
13.4 Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nucleic acids (chemical composition of DNA & RNA); Primary structure of DNA and its double helix; Replication; Transcription and protein synthesis; Genetic code.
13.5 Vitamins: Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones
13.6 Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; Free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations; Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers.
13.7 Pollution: Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; Chemical reactions in atmosphere; Smog; Major atmospheric pollutants; Acid rain; Ozone and its reactions; Depletion of ozone layer and its effects; Industrial air pollution; Green house effect and global warming; Green Chemistry.
13.8 Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food: Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, anti- microbials, anti-fertility drugs, antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids; Preservatives, artificial sweetening
agents, antioxidants, soaps and detergents.
14.1 Volumetric Analysis: Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid; Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, Na2SO3, Na2S2O3and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with KMnO4, K2 Cr2O7/Na2S2O3, Cu(II)/Na2S2O3.
14.2 Qualitative analysis of Inorganic Salts: Principles in the determination of the cations Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Fe3+, Ni2+ and the anions CO32-, S2-, SO42-, SO32-, NO2-, NO3-, Cl-,3-, CH COO-, C O ,Br-, I-, PO4
14.3 Physical Chemistry Experiments: preparation and crystallization of alum, copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs. solubility; pH measurements; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification.
Equilibrium studies involving (i) ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii)
determination for (i) strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction
between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii) iodide vs. hydrogen peroxide, concentration and
temperature effects in these reactions.
14.4 Purification Methods: Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation – Rf values.
14.5 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation.
14.6 Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae.
14.7 Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments: Preparation of iodoform, acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, di- benzayl acetone, aniline yellow, beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and study of its acidic character.
This test is designed to assess the test takers’ general proficiency in the use of English language as a means of self-expression in real life situations and specifically to test the test takers’ knowledge of basic grammar, their vocabulary, their ability to read fast and comprehend, and also their ability to apply the elements of effective writing.
1.1 Agreement, Time and Tense, Parallel construction, Relative pronouns
1.2 Determiners, Prepositions, Modals, Adjectives
1.3 Voice, Transformation
1.4 Question tags, Phrasal verbs
2.1 Synonyms, Antonyms, Odd Word, One Word, Jumbled letters, Homophones, Spelling
2.2 Contextual meaning.
3.5 Reconstruction (rewording)
4.2 Paragraph Unity
The test is given to the candidates to judge their power of reasoning spread in verbal and nonverbal areas. The candidates should be able to think logically so that they perceive the data accurately, understand the relationships correctly, figure out the missing numbers or words, and to apply rules to new and different contexts. These indicators are measured through performance on such tasks as detecting missing links, following directions, classifying words, establishing sequences, and completing analogies.
Analogy means correspondence. In the questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided.
Classification means to assort the items of a given group on the basis of certain common quality they possess and then spot the odd option out.
5.3 Series Completion
Here series of numbers or letters are given and one is asked to either complete the series or find out the wrong part in the series.
5.4 Logical Deduction – Reading Passage
Here a brief passage is given and based on the passage the candidate is required to identify the correct or incorrect logical conclusions.
5.5 Chart Logic
Here a chart or a table is given that is partially filled in and asks to complete it in accordance with the information given either in the chart / table or in the question.
6.1 Pattern Perception
Here a certain pattern is given and generally a quarter is left blank. The candidate is required to identify the correct quarter from the given four alternatives.
6.2 Figure Formation and Analysis
The candidate is required to analyze and form a figure from various given parts.
6.3 Paper Cutting
It involves the analysis of a pattern that is formed when a folded piece of paper is cut into a definite design.
6.4 Figure Matrix
In this more than one set of figures is given in the form of a matrix, all of them following the same rule. The candidate is required to follow the rule and identify the missing figure.
6.5 Rule Detection
Here a particular rule is given and it is required to select from the given sets of figures, a set of figures, which obeys the rule and forms the correct series.
1.1 Complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, roots of complex numbers, geometric interpretations; Fundamental theorem of algebra.
1.2 Theory of Quadratic equations, quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions, relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, equations reducible to quadratic equations.
1.3 Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, arithmetico-geometric series, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.
1.4 Logarithms and their properties.
1.5 Exponential series.
1.6 Permutations and combinations, Permutations as an arrangement and combination as selection, simple applications.
1.7 Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients, Pascal’s triangle
1.8 Matrices and determinants of order two or three, properties and evaluation of determinants, addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrices, Solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables, elementary row and column operations of matrices,
1.9 Sets, Relations and Functions, algebra of sets applications, equivalence relations, mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings, composition of mappings, binary operation, inverse of function, functions of real variables like polynomial, modulus, signum and greatest integer.
1.10 Mathematical Induction
1.11 Linear Inequalities, solution of linear inequalities in one and two variables.
2.1 Measurement of angles in radians and degrees, positive and negative angles, trigonometric ratios, functions and identities.
2.2 Solution of trigonometric equations.
2.3 Properties of triangles and solutions of triangles
2.4 Inverse trigonometric functions
2.5 Heights and distances
3.1 Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin.
3.2 Straight lines and pair of straight lines: Equation of straight lines in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrent lines.
3.3 Circles and family of circles : Equation of circle in various form, equation of tangent, normal & chords, parametric equations of a circle , intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of circle through point of intersection of two circles, conditions for two intersecting circles to be orthogonal.
3.4 Conic sections : parabola, ellipse and hyperbola their eccentricity, directrices & foci, parametric forms, equations of tangent & normal, conditions for y=mx+c to be a tangent and point of tangency.
4.1 Co-ordinate axes and co-ordinate planes, distance between two points, section formula, direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space and skew lines.
4.2 Angle between two lines whose direction ratios are given, shortest distance between two lines.
4.3 Equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane, condition for coplanarity of three lines, angles
between two planes, angle between a line and a plane.
5.1 Domain and range of a real valued function, Limits and Continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, Differentiability.
5.2 Derivative of different types of functions (polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, implicit functions), derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule.
5.3 Geometric interpretation of derivative, Tangents and Normals.
5.4 Increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of a function.
5.5 Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and Intermediate Value Theorem.
6.1 Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions.
6.2 Methods of integration: Integration by substitution, Integration by parts, integration by partial fractions, and integration by trigonometric identities.
6.3 Definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus, applications in finding areas under simple curves.
6.4 Application of definite integrals to the determination of areas of regions bounded by simple curves.
7.1 Order and degree of a differential equation, formulation of a differential equation whole general solution is given, variables separable method.
7.2 Solution of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree
7.3 Linear first order differential equations
8.1 Various terminology in probability, axiomatic and other approaches of probability, addition and multiplication rules of probability.
8.2 Conditional probability, total probability and Baye’s theorem
8.3 Independent events
8.4 Discrete random variables and distributions with mean and variance.
9.1 Direction ratio/cosines of vectors, addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio.
9.2 Dot and cross products of two vectors, projection of a vector on a line.
9.3 Scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.
10.1 Measures of dispersion
10.2 Measures of skewness and Central Tendency, Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances
11.1 Various terminology and formulation of linear Programming
11.2 Solution of linear Programming using graphical method, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (upto three nonitrivial constraints)
1.1 Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind
1.2 What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids; Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
1.3 Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system);
1.4 Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);
1.5 Animal kingdom – Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.
2.1 Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus;
2.2 Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.
2.3 Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.
2.4 Biomolecules – Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
2.5 Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.
3.1 Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete dominance; Co- dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;
3.2 Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.
3.3 DNA –its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation;
3.4 Gene expression and regulation; DNA fingerprinting.
3.5 Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.
4.1 Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants; Anatomy and function of root, stem (including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower (including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth;
4.2 Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.
4.3 Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.
4.4 Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors.
4.5 Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; Energy relations.
5.1 Human Physiology – Digestive system – organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system – organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases.
5.2 Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.
5.3 Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of kidney function
5.4 Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.
5.5 Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action.
8.3 Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems
8.4 Ecological adaptations – Structural and ph
8.5 Biodiversity and Environmental Issues – parks and Sanctuaries), Air and Water P change; Ozone depletion; Noise pollution;of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction
9: Biology and Human Welfare
9.1 Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, communicable diseases of humans caused
9.2 Cancer; AIDS.
9.3 Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
9.4 Basic concepts of immunology.
9.5 Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop
10: Biotechnology and its Applications
10.1 Microbes as ideal system for biotechnolog
10.2 Microbial technology in food processing treatment and energy generation.
10.3 Steps in recombinant DNA technology regeneration of recombinants
10.4 Applications of R-DNA technology in hu Organ transplant, Gene therapy.
10.5 Applications in Industry and Agriculture
Pollination : (Types and agents); osperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and elminth),types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination, Photo- periodism; Vernalisation,sation; Implantation, and niche.nism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic and Climax. Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological including agroecosystem, ysiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats. Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming and Climate, Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control (including an idea on of species (Hot Spots).
Fisheries : Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and elminthes, and their control, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics), sewage restriction enzymes, NA insertion by vectors and other methods, man health –Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones,– Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses, GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt crops.
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